Chandrayaan 2

Chandrayaan 2 : ISRO will for the first time attempt to land a rover on the moon’s South Pole. Chandrayaan-2 will be India’s second mission to the Moon and this indigenous mission comprising of an Orbiter, Lander and Rover.

The plan is to land a six-wheeled Rover which will move around the landing web site in semi-autonomous mode as determined by the bottom commands. The Lander housing the Rover will separate from the Orbiter after reaching the 100 km lunar orbit and after a controlled descent, the Lander will soft land on the lunar surface at a specified site and deploy a Rover.

The instruments on the rover can observe the satellite surface and remand information, which will be useful for analysis of the lunar soil. GSLV-F10/Chandrayaan-2 Mission is planned during early 2019.

 Chandrayaan 2 – Mission Objectives

The main objective of Chandrayaan-2 is to collect scientific information on lunar topography, mineralogy, elemental abundance, lunar exosphere and signatures of hydroxyl and water-ice. The orbiter would orbit around the moon and perform the objectives of remote sensing the moon.


Orbiter and lander in stacked configuration with the rover within the lander. The mission is planned to fly on a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III (GSLV MkIII) with an approximate lift-off mass of 3,877 kg from Satish Dhawan Space Centre on Sriharikota Island.


Chandrayaan 2 orbiter carries five instruments, three of them are new, while two others are improved versions of those flown on Chandrayaan-1. Orbiter will orbit the Moon at an altitude of 100 km. Orbiter High Resolution Camera (OHRC) on board will conduct high-resolution observations of the landing web site before separation of the lander from the equipment.


Vikram (Mission’s Lander), named after Vikram Sarabhai (1919-1971) will detach from the orbiter and descend to a lunar orbit of 30 km × 100 using its 800 N liquid main engines. Unlike Chandrayaan-1’s Moon Impact Probe, the Vikram lander will make a soft landing, deploy the rover, and perform some scientific activities for roughly fifteen days.


Weighing around 27 kg and operating on solar power, this rover will move on 6 wheels on the lunar surface, perform on-site chemical analysis and send the data to the orbiter above, which will relay it to the Earth station.

Artist impression of the rover Equipped with three subsystems; Stereoscopic camera-based 3D vision using two NAVCAMs, Kinematic traction control and Control and motor dynamics to provide mobility, rover will provide the ground team a 3D view of the surrounding terrain and help in path planning by generating a digital elevation model of the terrain, The rover will have six wheels, each driven by an independent electric motor. Four of the wheels also will be capable of freelance steering. A total of 10 electric motors will be used for traction and steering and this will enable the rover to barter the rough satellite tract victimization freelance steering provided on four of its wheels.

Anshuman Soni

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